Gaming Infrastructure Part 4: Communication Infra in an ARC World
Now that we understand the motivations behind building games on-chain, we can return to exploring ARC architecture, which we argue is the optimal approach to building on-chain game...
Jan 12 _ 7 min read
Gaming Infrastructure Part 3: Benefits of Building Games On-Chain
There has been warranted skepticism among both the gaming and crypto communities around the virtue of having any part of a game state stored on-chain, in the wake of the hyper-fina...
Jan 11 _ 4 min read
Gaming Infrastructure Part 2: Introduction to ARC
Over the next few articles, we will highlight some of the infrastructure that could enable fully on-chain games (FOC) and on-chain assets (OCA), along with rough designs of what ea...
Jan 09 _ 7 min read
Gaming Infrastructure Part 1: Defining On-chain Gaming
Gaming has long been touted as a potential core use case for crypto. Built around natively digital assets and serving global audiences, games are in many ways the perfect candidate...
Jan 06 _ 5 min read
Bridging and Finality: An Introduction
In an upcoming series, we’re going to dive into the guarantees that different chains make about finality and the block production/consensus mechanisms that produce those guarantees...
Dec 22 _ 19 min read
Statistical Attacks on Proof of Solvency
In theory, for Proof of Solvency to bind on crypto exchanges, only a handful of random checks are needed. But in practice, exchanges can predict which consumers are likely to check...
Dec 21 _ 15 min read
Improving Twiddle Access for Number Theoretic Transforms: The Beginnings
Number Theoretic Transforms (NTTs) play a critical role in the generation of ZKPs. Several notable ZK proof systems, including Plonky2 and other STARK-based proof system rely heavi...
Nov 29 _ 6 min read
SAFU: Creating a Standard for Whitehats
Whitehats and DeFi protocols need a shared understanding of security policy. We propose the SAFU - Simple Arrangement for Funding Upload - as a versatile and credible way to let wh...
Oct 24 _ 17 min read
Token Delegation with Lock-Ups
Token delegation contracts may want to use explicit lock-up periods, to give delegates more independence in making crypto governance decisions. We demonstrate using the Maker contr...
Oct 17 _ 9 min read
So you still want to use a price oracle
To provide accurate and timely data, price oracles should align incentives with data publishers, i.e. make them "stake" collateral, reputation, and trading capital.
Aug 30 _ 14 min read
Paradigms for On-Chain Credit
Since the massive explosion of DeFi activity and innovation in mid-2020, decentralized lending has become a core pillar of the emerging on-chain financial system.
Aug 22 _ 23 min read
Whitehats and Dropboxes
Protocols should set up "dropboxes" (distinct on-chain addresses) for whitehats to move funds into, from the protocol — and they should promise rewards and favorable treatment for ...
Aug 12 _ 8 min read
Token Design for Serious People
Tokenomics should: (i) provide common goods that couldn't be provided individually, and (ii) reward those who create value rather than extract or transfer value. This piece uses th...
Jul 07 _ 17 min read
DERPs: Decentralized Reinsurance Pools
We introduce decentralized reinsurance pools (DERPs) to enhance the crypto insurance landscape. DERPs are pools of capital that underwrite retail-facing insurance pools and are man...
Jun 21 _ 6 min read
The Depegging of UST
The UST depegging was triggered by a sequence of trades on Curve on May 7. Anchor outflows from May 7 until May 9 — especially from a small set of large traders — put further press...
Jun 03 _ 18 min read
Flavors of Standalone Multichain Architecture
Overview Scalability has long been a widely discussed topic in the space, with conversations around monolithic vs. modular blockchains and horizontal vs. vertical scaling having...
May 23 _ 21 min read
New Markets, Efficient Markets
The market for new tokens looks surprisingly efficient, in that returns (against Bitcoin) are neither systematic nor predictable.
Apr 27 _ 13 min read
SLOB: Searcher Limit Order Book
tl;dr: we explore a theoretical Ethereum CLOB DEX protocol that leverages Flashbots to enable traders to place orders that live off-chain and pay no gas fees unless the order trade...
Apr 20 _ 8 min read
A Foray into Blockchain Scalability
Introduction In the last article, we developed a framework for analyzing L1s. We pointed out briefly that the motivation behind many of these novel L1s has largely been centered ar...
Mar 31 _ 15 min read
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