Mapping Markets: Evaluating Blockchain’s Mass Adoption Potential
In this post, we propose a geographically-oriented framework, which we call “Pueyo Maps” (inspired by Tomas Pueyo’s geo-history), as a way of evaluating the long-term suitability o...
Jun 05 2023 _ 20 min read
Bridging and Finality: Optimism and Arbitrum
In this article, we’ll step through each aspect of the rollup protocol and explain what assurances the user has over their transaction’s finality at every point.
Mar 22 2023 _ 9 min read
Bridging and Finality: Ethereum
In this post, we explore the tradeoff between latency and reversion risk at the major stages in Ethereum’s current proof-of-stake consensus protocol.
Mar 03 2023 _ 12 min read
Helping Secure BNB Chain Through Responsible Disclosure
We describe a vulnerability we discovered in the BNB Beacon Chain, the governance and staking layer of BNB Chain. The issue would have allowed an attacker to mint an infinite numbe...
Feb 10 2023 _ 6 min read
Gaming Infrastructure Part 4: Communication Infra in an ARC World
Now that we understand the motivations behind building games on-chain, we can return to exploring ARC architecture, which we argue is the optimal approach to building on-chain game...
Jan 12 2023 _ 7 min read
Gaming Infrastructure Part 3: Benefits of Building Games On-Chain
There has been warranted skepticism among both the gaming and crypto communities around the virtue of having any part of a game state stored on-chain, in the wake of the hyper-fina...
Jan 11 2023 _ 4 min read
Gaming Infrastructure Part 2: Introduction to ARC
Over the next few articles, we will highlight some of the infrastructure that could enable fully on-chain games (FOC) and on-chain assets (OCA), along with rough designs of what ea...
Jan 09 2023 _ 7 min read
Gaming Infrastructure Part 1: Defining On-chain Gaming
Gaming has long been touted as a potential core use case for crypto. Built around natively digital assets and serving global audiences, games are in many ways the perfect candidate...
Jan 06 2023 _ 5 min read
Bridging and Finality: An Introduction
In an upcoming series, we’re going to dive into the guarantees that different chains make about finality and the block production/consensus mechanisms that produce those guarantees...
Dec 22 2022 _ 19 min read
Statistical Attacks on Proof of Solvency
In theory, for Proof of Solvency to bind on crypto exchanges, only a handful of random checks are needed. But in practice, exchanges can predict which consumers are likely to check...
Dec 21 2022 _ 15 min read
Improving Twiddle Access for Number Theoretic Transforms: The Beginnings
Number Theoretic Transforms (NTTs) play a critical role in the generation of ZKPs. Several notable ZK proof systems, including Plonky2 and other STARK-based proof system rely heavi...
Nov 29 2022 _ 6 min read
Accelerating Multi-Scalar Multiplication in Hardware… and Software
Zero-Knowledge proofs have many amazing properties, but today, they suffer from a fundamental issue — they’re expensive and difficult to make. In this article, we describe our appr...
Oct 31 2022 _ 6 min read
SAFU: Creating a Standard for Whitehats
Whitehats and DeFi protocols need a shared understanding of security policy. We propose the SAFU - Simple Arrangement for Funding Upload - as a versatile and credible way to let wh...
Oct 24 2022 _ 17 min read
Token Delegation with Lock-Ups
Token delegation contracts may want to use explicit lock-up periods, to give delegates more independence in making crypto governance decisions. We demonstrate using the Maker contr...
Oct 17 2022 _ 9 min read
So You Still Want to Use a Price Oracle
To provide accurate and timely data, price oracles should align incentives with data publishers, i.e. make them "stake" collateral, reputation, and trading capital.
Aug 30 2022 _ 14 min read
Paradigms for On-Chain Credit
Since the massive explosion of DeFi activity and innovation in mid-2020, decentralized lending has become a core pillar of the emerging on-chain financial system.
Aug 22 2022 _ 23 min read
Whitehats and Dropboxes
Protocols should set up "dropboxes" (distinct on-chain addresses) for whitehats to move funds into, from the protocol — and they should promise rewards and favorable treatment for ...
Aug 12 2022 _ 8 min read
Token Design for Serious People
Tokenomics should: (i) provide common goods that couldn't be provided individually, and (ii) reward those who create value rather than extract or transfer value. This piece uses th...
Jul 07 2022 _ 17 min read
DERPs: Decentralized Reinsurance Pools
We introduce decentralized reinsurance pools (DERPs) to enhance the crypto insurance landscape. DERPs are pools of capital that underwrite retail-facing insurance pools and are man...
Jun 21 2022 _ 6 min read
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